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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Faster growth should also dispel worries about another Fed bogeyman: deflation, or falling prices. "It's impossible to have deflation in an economy growing 3%-plus and adding the most jobs since the 1990s," Baumohl said.

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If the oldest man ever elected president can “tweet like a kindergartner,” why not flip the script and see if a youngster can be elected to office and govern wisely?
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Politics also color perceptions of the weather, the survey found. More than three-quarters of Democrats and six in 10 independents believe that the weather has become more extreme over the last few years, while less than half of Republicans say they have perceived such a shift.

米兰达·兰伯特,《浴室水槽》(Bathroom Sink),RCA Nashville
1=somewhat false
Two Chinese universities, University of Hong Kong and University of Macao, squeezed into the top 10 of the world's most international universities in 2016, according to a new list published by Times Higher Education on Thursday.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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2. Worldwide Murders
Technology:Cadillac will introduce high-resolution video streaming in the rearview mirror, which improves the field of vision by about four times greater than a traditional mirror by removing obstructions like pillars and passengers. Just the thing for aging Cadillac drivers with stiff necks. Coming next: a “beep, beep, beep” signal like that used by garbage trucks whenever the car is driven in reverse.
乔布斯正在展示 iPad 2。2011年3月,旧金山

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

This compared to a decade ago when there were six Asian cities, 10 European cities and four US cities in the top 20 of the list that calculates living costs in 131 cities in 93 countries and is used by companies for costings when relocating staff.
节目35 歌曲《美丽中国》,沙宝亮 徐千雅
At age 20, the teen prodigy of "Royals" raised the bar, marrying the massive vistas of electronic music alongside the human-scaled and handmade on her second LP, with help from co-producer Jack Antonoff.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • 地产股午后持续下挫 万科A大跌放量大跌6%
  • With a bit of help from Charles Dickens, let’s take a look back at the year in which almost nothing worked:
  • 长沙规定限价商品住房平均利润率6%至8%
  • 金九银十季 家居制造业“普工荒”成高悬之剑
  • Most technology developers are seeing app use grow and web use decline. That means companies have to have strong, fast, meaningful mobile platforms and those that don't lose customers.
    8.Suicide Squad

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 浙江商品房销售转降为升 待售面积下降明显, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

汪涛:房地产销售现回暖 高库存拖累经济增长

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

江西预计可再减贫50万人 占全省贫困人口三分之一以上

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    Japanese cities have seen a lowering of costs, despite being some of the most expensive cities over the past 20 years, Tokyo and Osaka have dropped to 11th and 14th place, respectively.
    Hurricane Harvey
    I'm pleased to see manufacturing jobs returning to the U.S., but I don't expect the manufacturing industry to have the galvanic effect on the economy that many hope for. Why? Because automation will sharply erode the number of jobs any factory requires. The disappearance of blue-collar and entry-level jobs is already a problem, and that problem will grow.
    补救办法:虽然自己当老板的想法很诱人,但并不是每个人都适合创业。创造属于自己的事业,让家人过上幸福生活,改善顾客的生活,这些听起来肯定很浪漫,但漫长的工作时间、没有闲暇时间、承担资金风险,身兼老板、职员、营销人员、会计和门卫等多个职位于一身,这些你能承受吗?如果你喜欢稳定的工作和专注于某项具体任务而不是身兼多职,又或者你不喜欢冒险,你就无法想象整天为工作忙碌的生活。如果你属于以上情况,那么创业并不适合你。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 东鹏控股主要股东售股套现逾亿
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 年末冲刺 住房供求面积推至年内最高值

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

“见风使舵!”“谄媚迎合美国人!”官方入选名单一经宣布,负面评价如潮水般汹涌而来。电影节上影片使用英语对白的导演不在少数,包括了意大利的马提欧?加洛尼(Matteo Garrone)和保罗?索伦蒂诺(Paolo Sorrentino),希腊的欧格斯?兰斯莫斯,挪威的约阿希姆?提尔(Joachim Trier),甚至包括法国的纪洛姆?尼克乐(Guillaume Nicloux)。法国有着对英语威胁极其敏感的文化情结。有一个观点认为,戛纳应该是世界电影的天堂,而英语电影的天堂已经有了,就是好莱坞。但这有意义吗?在戛纳电影节上,除了法语或英语影片,其他影片都是双语字幕--这是个巨大的工程。
People on both sides of the Taiwan Strait are brothers and sisters, and no matter how the situation on the island evolves, the mainland is determined to maintain Cross-Strait stability.
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core
sur后+viv活+al表名词,“人,物,状态”→事故后活下来→幸存→生存,幸存
Since Sunday, viewers everywhere have been in mourning, at least judging by the Twitterati.
Technology is hardly a brand new phenomenon in the legal world — many firms now have partnerships with AI and machine-learning businesses, while some have set up their own “incubators” or invested in lawtech start-ups. But the trend has reached critical mass and will accelerate sharply in 2018.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • If 2017 was the year policymakers began to worry about the growth of the “precariat”, 2018 will be the year they try to do something about it.
  • 儿童涂料高价未必高环保 新国标出台为当务之急
  • Inflation for consumers, meanwhile, ticked up slightly to 1.5 per cent, versus a five-year low of 1.4 per cent in November.
    'The pizza is extremely rich - if you're in the mood for a lavish meal, this is the pizza for you,' he said.
  • 抑制房租病态上涨需多措并举
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • It is the first time in five years that a single programme broke into the top five, so strong was the hold of the main five global EMBAs.
    The capital plans to move most of its municipal departments to the suburban district of Tongzhou in 2017, the Beijing Municipal Committee announced on Wednesday.
  • Celebrities throughout Hollywood have been doing just that over the last few weeks, especially when it comes to picking up some pumpkins at the local pumpkin patch.
    If a sitcom that lasts for 10 years is considered popular, then surely one that still stirs up emotions after 20 must be considered a classic. Friends first aired in the US in 1994, featuring a cast of six young men and women in New York. In the time since, it’s become one of the most famous titles in the sitcom genre, aired in over 100 countries and regions in the world.
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    An EMBA also boosts corporate careers. “The skills I acquired were key to my promotion,” said one graduate. A fifth are now chief executives, managing directors or board members three years after graduation. Average salaries were up 52 per cent from $114,000 before the programme to $175,000 five years later.
  • 《她》(Her),由斯派克?琼斯(Spike Jonze)担任编剧兼导演,将浪漫带入了虚拟世界,影片的主人公展开了一场有些疯狂的真正激情之旅。华金?菲尼克斯(Joaquin Phoenix)扮演的男主角是个令人心酸的孤独小伙子,他爱上了自己智能手机的新操作系统。影片的基本构想有些脆弱,但故事非常华丽地展开,霍伊特?范?霍特玛(Hoyte Van Hoytema)的摄影也很精妙,完美地烘托了菲尼克斯、艾米?亚当斯(Amy Adams)和斯嘉丽?约翰逊(Scarlett Johansson)的表演。斯嘉丽?约翰逊在片中扮演的是智能手机操作系统的声音和灵魂。
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    8. 2012年搞笑诺贝尔奖之流体力学奖
  • 在1991年至2010年之间,癌症死亡率显著下降了20%,这比过去十年下降总和的10%还要多。总有一天,我们会跟癌症说再见。
    时间长度:24个月
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 邓郁松 :如何平抑一线城市房价过快上涨? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

江西:创业担保贷款“破千亿” 带动就业389万人次

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

装修费用成谜 人工费是材料费的一倍?

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

江苏现“魔鬼路口”:街边房子3年一共被撞6次

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

陶企抽检被判不合格 可向国家相关部门投诉

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • 央行副行长:货币政策并非助推房价单一因素

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Manal al-Sharif
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 源于:relax(v 放松;休息)
    You are the one for me this New Year and for many New Years to come.在此新年和未来的每个新年里,你都是我唯一的爱!
    Trailing behind "Game of Thrones" on the most downloaded list are "Breaking Bad" and "The Walking Dead." Here is the list of 2013's most-downloaded TV shows (single episode) according to data collected by TorrentFreak and BitTorrent trackers:
  • 三严三实:既严以修身、严以用权、严以律己,又谋事要实、创业要实、做人要实

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • After weeks of rumors, Phil Jackson failed to move Carmelo Anthony and Derrick Rose, two players who absolutely should have been traded for the long-term benefit of the franchise.
  • 北京朝阳将建十座地区文化中心
  • 二月的一天,苹果(Apple)的年度股东大会进行了一个多小时,蒂姆?库克(Tim Cook)已经耐心地回答了苹果进军电视市场的计划和他如何看待谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)等各类问题。但当一位参会听众就苹果各环保项目(比如其太阳能数据中心)的盈利能力向这位首席执行官发难的时候,库克发怒了。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 习近平对吉林长春长生生物疫苗案件作出重要指示
  • Household substance abuse
  • 绿色建材十大行动计划启动 Low-E玻璃将成为节能明星
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

马桶节水新国标定量5升 将于今年年底实施

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 智能家居产业链整合推动行业高速发展
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 求解租房贵是如何形成的? 供求失衡会长期存在吗?
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

其他地方已经出现了这种情况。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

“I don’t think there are any companies that have survived big assaults from two of the biggest beasts in the hedge fund jungle,” says Ms Simpson of Calpers. “He is cool, calm and collected — the corporate exemplar of ‘Keep calm and carry on’.”
节目33 歌曲《我爱你中国》,汪峰
The fall in demand for industrial bulk commodities was particularly pronounced. Huge oversupply in China’s real estate and manufacturing sectors has damped investment in new capacity in recent months, denting demand for all kinds of raw materials.
7、 阿斯顿·马丁必须有。不止如此,还要在异国情调的赌场里挥金如土——一掷千金的男人很能吸引寻欢中的女性。常与女性周旋的邦德更擅长于此。
All employees receive a $25 monthly credit to the DreamWorks PrintCenters at the Glendale and Redwood City campuses. Charged only for supplies, the studio is able to offer inexpensive services that range from printing photographs to creating greeting cards and personalized calendars.
当我表示自己对一门很难的课程十分害怕时,我的指导老师问我:“那你还想不想接受教育呢?”
54集电视连续剧《花千骨》绝对是刷爆朋友圈热门话题。2015年夏天播出以来,《花千骨》就名噪一时。这部由霍建华和赵丽颖主演的电视剧改编自Fresh果果的同名网络小说。这部改编电视剧颇具美感,中国水墨画风格的外景,加上盛世美颜的男女猪脚,成功吸引了80多万微博粉丝(《花千骨》电视剧官方微博)。该剧2015年6月首播,以女性的视角讲诉了一个孤儿成为女神的心路历程,以及她经历的旷世虐恋。
外部事件的影响。《消费者报告》(Consumer Reports)杂志曾经对Model S大加吹捧,但最近该杂志也报道了它的一些常见故障,包括门把手失效,中控触屏白屏,导致车内大部分功能不能使用等等。汽车网站Edmunds.com也找了Model S的麻烦。更多此类报告无疑会影响特斯拉到目前为止非常正面的声誉。
不过目前来看,这些潜在的乌云似乎都没有遮住特斯拉在帕洛阿尔托总部的阳光。特斯拉仍然坚持在2020年之前年产50万辆汽车的中期目标。这在很大程度上要取决于Model X是否有能力维持当前的势头。特斯拉已经大大提高了资本和研发支出,以确保Model X的顺利发布(虽然已经推迟了一年)。
Until now Thor has been the neglected child of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Though some liked Kenneth Branagh’s first film featuring the god of thunder, Chris Hemsworth was arguably overshadowed by Tom Hiddleston’s preening popinjay of a villain, Loki. And the second film, the humourless Thor: The Dark World, is widely regarded as the worst film released by Marvel Studios to date. So to inject new life into this sagging franchise, Marvel brought in New Zealand comedy auteur Taiki Waititi to add some Kiwi quirk. This time Thor faces down the goddess of death, played by Cate Blanchett. Thor may have the hammer, but she has the attitude. Released November 1 in Serbia and Hungary, November 2 in Cambodia and Israel and November 3 in India and Canada. (Credit: Marvel Studios)

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

何立峰:中国经济一定会继续保持稳中有进态势,实现今年预定目标

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • “BlackBerry has not engaged in discussions with Samsung with respect to any possible offer to purchase BlackBerry,” the company said in a statement issued Wednesday afternoon. “BlackBerry’s policy is not to comment on rumors or speculation, and accordingly it does not intend to comment further.”
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 201001/95459.shtml
  • 营销大战已启幕 家居建材企业忙造节
  • 现在对于宣传单张的内容还没有详细的介绍,但之前投放的传单都包含谴责北韩统治者家族的言论。
  • 深圳:大鹏新区今年第一批公租房申请终审结束
  • 9.Touchscreens

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 家居卖场与其做无谓抵抗 不如主动迎接变革
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 她还指出,其他国家在其货币贬值的同时呈现出旅客数量的大幅增加。
  • But, despite the incessant warnings from security researchers, many people are still turning to weak, easily guessable passwords to protect their devices.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

“光伏大国”蓝图初现

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